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The development of the black-figure style in clazomenian pottery (L. Kopeikina)

The present article is a publication of thirty-one fragments of Clazomenian pottery excavated on Berezan Island and now housed in the Hermitage. The material is discussed against the general background of the formation and development of the black-figure style in East Ionian vase painting. The classification and dating of the specimens are based on the system proposed by R. M. Cook in his research on Clazomenian pottery.

Unlike other classes of East Ionian pottery Clazomenian ceramics are found on the Berezan site in modest quantities and, as a rule, in a highly fragmentary condition. Of the fragments in the Hermitage collection, only five have already been published.

Practically all Clazomenian pottery in the Hermitage collection, with only a few exceptions, may be referred to the Enmann and Knipovich classes. The fragments date chiefly from the third quarter of the sixth century B.C., only a few relating to its last quarter. Some specimens are outstanding for the motifs of their decor - for instance, the askos with an octopus - and others for their unusually high artistic quality. In respect of style and painting techniques, many specimens are similar to Clazomenian vessels from other northern Pontic centres, such as Olbia and the Bosporan cities, and may have come from the same workshops.

Of considerable interest are seven fragments that are not attributable to any of the five classes suggested by R. M. Cook. In the style and techniques of their decor they stand closest to the manner of the Northampton painters and probably came from the same Ionian workshops where the masters of this group worked. Taken together with similar specimens from other cities of the northern Black Sea coast and certain samples found in the Mediterranean area, they give a clear picture of the formation of the black- figure style evolved by these Ionian workshops - a style close to the Clazomenian school, whilst still standing somewhat apart in the history of East Ionian black-figure vase painting.

A comparison of Clazomenian pottery from Berezan Island with specimens of such pottery from other centres of the northern Black Sea coast shows that they all have the same provenance. Very few vessels were brought from Clazomenae proper: some objects are from Samos; the greater part were probably manufactured in some North Ionian centres of ceramic production.

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